THE PAGAN KINGDOM (1044 A.D. TO 1298 A.D)
The Pagan Dynasty
ANAWRAHTA (1044 TO 1077 A.D)
1. His Ascendancy
Anawrahta was the son of Kunhsaw Kyaungpyu. The latter was a beetle-seller at the court of Nyaung-u-Sawhran the second important chief of Pagan. Kunhsaw
Kyaungpyu killed the chief and usurped the throne. He kept the two sons of the dead chief at the palace. When they grew up they became monks and erected a
monastery. They then invited the chief to bless the temple, and when the later came they forced him to become a monk while they took the throne. After some
years one of the brothers died and only Sokkc-Te remained. In 1044 A.D. Sokke-Te had to fight Anawrahta the son of the usurper. Anawrahta wanted to avenge
his father's imprisonment in the monastery. In this battle Sokke-Te was killed, and Anawrahta became the ruler of Pagan.
Towards 1044 A.D. the Pyus had intermingled with the other tribes and they merged into a new tribe which later came to be called BURMESE. Thus, at the time
of accession of Anawrahta the Pyus termed themselves as Burmese. The Pyus or the Burmese Districts were Meiktila, Mandalay, Myingyan, Kyaukse, Yamethm,
Sagaing, Pakokku and Minbu. Anawrahta now began to rule all these places. His kingdom at the time of his accession was therefore about 200 miles north to
south and 80 miles east to west.
At the time of his accession Anawrahta had a son called SAWLU. But he wanted a royal marriage and therefore
married Pancha Kalyani, an Indian Princess. Anawrahta now received another son called Kyanzittha who grew up to be a great warrior and won much fame in the
wars against the Maw Shans. He soon received the admiration of all the people at the court. Sawlu began to dislike Kyanzittha because of the latter's
2. His Administration
Till 1056 A.D. Anawrahta had no war plans; the years following his accession were peaceful ones for his subjects. He tried to introduce a centralised system
of government and succeeded in his attempt. He divided the kingdom into districts and appointed OFFICERS to maintain law and order and also to see to the
collection of revenue, Historians mention that this collection of revenue was based on the productivity of the soil. In this way Anawrahta began to link his
kingdom together under his direct rule. It was a unique attempt. Anawrahta was also much interested in the production of crops. He repaired the Meiktila Lake
and made many irrigational canals in order to improve the production of rice. During his reign Kyaukse became a rich rice-growing area, and came to be called
the RICE GRANARY of Burma. It is stated that he personally saw to the construction of these canals. As a result of these improvements there was much
prosperity throughout his 'Kingdom. He became very popular and soon won the love and loyalty of his subjects.
3. His Wars
Anawrahta began his wars after 1056 A.D. He then launched out into a series aggressive wars. With the arrival of Shin Arahan at his palace a great chance
came over his peaceful policy. He began to undertake offensive wars.
In 1056 Shin Arahan, a Thahton monk, entered his Kingdom and arrived at his palace. He began to preach the pure form of Buddhist religion. Anawrahta and his
subject had so far heard the Ari teachings only which was a corrupted form of Buddhism. He now accepted the teachings of Shin Arahan and asked him to convert
his subjects as well. But for this great task Shin Arahan needed the HOLY BOOKS or the TRIPITAKAS. He thereupon asked the ruler to get these books on loan
from the chief of Thahton. Anawrahta then made a request to the Thahton chief for a loan of these Holy Books but the latter refused. This made Anawrahta very
furious and in the same year he invaded Thahton. Thus began his wars. His success at Thahton made him very ambitious and he undertook two more aggressive
wars. His wars can therefore be classified as follows :—
| ||(a)||The Thahton Invasion.|
| ||(b)||The Arakan Invasion.|
| ||(c)||The Alied war with the chief of Pegu against the Maw Shans.|
(a) The Thaton invasion
In 1056 Anawrahta invaded Thaton. It brought a brilliant victory to him. The chief of Thaton was taken prisoner along with this royal family. The Talaings
then submitted to the Burmese ruler and acknowledged him as their overlord. The significance of this war is as follows: —
|1.||The Pagan Kingdom now stretched over the Delta and the Tenasserim.|
|2.||Thahton gradually began to lose its religious importance because the Holy Books called the
Tripitakas were taken to Pagan.|
|3.||Pagan became a great religious centre and continued to remain so for many centuries.|
|4.||The Talaing culture was also removed to Pagan. The leading Talaing artisans were taken td the
|5.||The Talaing language was also introduced at Pagan. The script was PALI.|
(b)The Arakan invasion
Immediately after the end of the Thahton Invasion Anawrahta had to invade Arakan. The Pagan ruler had denounced the Ari religion. But the Arakanese still
believed in the magical powers of the Ari religion. Rumours reached Anawrahta that these magical powers practised by the Arakanese might prove to be a source
of danger to the safety of his kingdom. The Pagan ruler thereupon invaded Asakan in order to crush these magical powers. He was successful in defeating the
Arakanese and then he destroyed the MAHAMUNI TEMPLE. He also captured the chief of Arakan and his family, and brought them to his capital. Thus ended Arakan
invasion. The Arakanese also acknowledged him as their overlord and agreed to send him annual tributes.
(c) The Allied War with the Chief of Pegu against the Maw Shans
Anawrahta received homage from several of the Shan chiefs, and the latter had taken the oath of allegiance. But in spite of this existing friendship
Anawrahta built forty-five military outposts along the eastern borders of his kingdom to safeguard the frontiers. The chief of Pegu had often to submit to
the plundering invasions made by the Maw Shans. The Pegu chief then asked for an alliance from Anawrahta against the Maw Shans. The Pagan ruler sent four of
his great warlords, and one of these was his son called Kyanzittha. The allied forces won the war and the Shans were suppressed severely. The chief of Pegu
offered his daughter to Anawrahta as a token of gratitude. She was sent along with Kyanzittha. But on their way to Pagan Kyanzittha misbehaved with the
princess. The matter was reported to Anawrahta who was very furious over Kyanzittha's behaviour. The King struck him with his spear, but fortunately for
Kyanzittha the spear struck the knots of the ropes, and he was thus able to run away from the court. He fled to Sagaing and settled at Kyaungbyu. Here he
married a monk's daughter called Thambula, The allied war with chief of Pegu brought an end to Kyanzittha*s war career under the great king Anawrahta.
4. His Religion
This can also be classified into two divisions, viz.,
Anawrahta and his predecessors had accepted the Ari religion which they found around Pagan after their retreat from Prome in 849 A.D. Like his predecessors
Anawrahta also loved the Ari religion and believed in its teachings. He built many temples dedicating them to the spread of the Ari religion. One of these
temples was the BAWRITHAT Temple near Meiktila.
| ||(a)||His religion before 1056 A.D.|
| ||(b)||His religion after 1056 A.D.|
But a sudden change came in his religious beliefs in 1056. A monk called Shin Arahan entered his court and began to preach the pure form of Buddhist
religion. Anawrahta was much attracted by the preaching of this monk and he accepted the new faith. He also asked the monk to preach this religion throughout
his kingdom. But the monk needed the HOLY BOOKS called the TRIPITAKAS. He had come from Thahton and he knew that the chief of Thahton possessed these books.
He asked Anawrahta to get these books from the chief of Thahton. This brought the Thahton invasion which finally ended in the capture of Thahton; and thus
the Holy books were brought for the preaching at Pagan. The Buddhist religion now spread throughout the kingdom.
Anawrahta desired to make Pagan a great religious centre. He wanted his capital to hold all the religious relics of the Buddhist religion. His enthusiasm to
give religious glory to his capital revealed the love and admiration which he had for the Buddhist religion. In his eagerness to gather religious relics he
marched into Nanchao and succeeded in getting a jade image which had come into contact with Lord's Tooth. The Nanchao chief however, refused to part with the
Later on Anawrahta received a duplicate of the Lord's Tooth from Bahu I of Ceylon. The chief of Ceylon asked help from him against the raiders from the
mainland of India. The Pagan ruler sent his forces but before these could reach Ceylon. Bahu I successfully defeated the Indian raiders. However, the
alliance brought a friendship between Anawrahta and Bahu I. There was an exchange of gifts and Anawrahta received the duplicate of Buddha's Tooth. A
magnificent ceremony was held at the arrival of the TOOTH. It is said that Anawrahta waded down the stream to receive this rich gift sent by the chief of
Ceylon. The ceremony was held at Lokananda, a few miles south of Pagan. The duplicate was placed in a jewelled casket and Anawrahta bore the casket on his
head to the shrine.
Anawrahta also built many temples for the spread of this new faith. The best were the Lokananda Temples and the Shwemeddaw and the Shwezigone. The last
mentioned temple was left unfinished because of the sudden death of Anawrahta in 1077. While supervising the construction of the Shwezigone Pagoda Anawrahta
was informed that a wild buffalo was a menace to a certain village. He harried to kill the buffalo. Unfortunately, the ruler was killed. His son Sawlu then
ascended the throne.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ANAWRAHTA'S REIGN
|1.||The Pagan Kingdom was firmly established.|
|2.||The Arakanese, the Shans and the Talaings were brought under submission.
They acknowledged Anawrahta as their OVERLORD, and sent him annual tributes to show their loyalty.
The Pagan Kingdom became very popular.
|3.||The Buddhist religion was introduced throughout the Kingdom and Pagan became a great religious centre.|
SAWLU (1077 A.D TO 1084 A.D)
|1.||His Ascendancy & his character.|
1. His Ascendancy
Sawlu was the son of Anawrahta.
He was born before his father was able to get the throne from Sokke-Te. Sawlu came to have a foster brother when his father married Pancha Kalyani. Although
he was the first son yet he began to envy his brother Kyanzittha because the latter became a very popular figure at the court for his brilliant victories in
the wars fought during Anawrahta's reign. Fortunately for Sawlu his foster brother was exiled from Pagan for his wicked behaviour with the princess of Pegu.
From very early days Sawlu spent most of his time with his friend called Yamankan. He was a Taiaing. Much of the time was occupied in playing dice. He failed
to inherit the abilities of his father. Neither did he attempt to improve his character and his habit. Even after his accession in 1077 he continued to
gamble with his Taiaing friend Yamankan.
2. His Wars
Sawlu was not a warrior and he kept himself away from war. But closer to 1084 he brought a war on his capital which finally led to his death in the same
year. While playing a game of dice with Yamankan, Sawlu placed his kingdom at stake for he promised that if he lost the game then Yamankan stood at liberty
to lead a rebellion against him. Sawlu lost the game and Yamankan then marched against him with a large Talaing force. The advisors of Sawlu asked him to
recall Kyanzittha for help against the marching Talaings. Sawlu invited Kyanzittha but refused to accept the plans directed by the latter as he suspected
that his foster brother might play him false in order to snatch the throne from him. Had he only accepted his brother's war-plans then perhaps he might have
lived to rule Pagan for a longer period. This neglect by Sawlu led to his defeat and he was captured and taken away by Yamankan. Kyanzittha now made an
attempt to rescue his brother from Yamankan's camp. He was very sincere in his task but even here he found that Sawlu distrusted his actions. Kyanzittha
entered the Talaing camp and tried to carry away his brother. But Sawlu began to fear that Kyanzittha was trying to get rid of him and he therefore shouted
out for help. The presence Kyanzittha was thus revealed to the enemy and he had to flee from the camp. It is said that he had to swim up the Irrawaddy in
order to seek safety. He reached Pakokku and here found himself hailed as the ruler of Pagan. Meantime Sawlu had been executed by Yamankan. So began the
reign of Kyanzittha in 1084.
KYANZITTHA (1084 A.D TO 1112 A.D)
|4.||His Religion & the significance of his reign.|
1. His Ascendancy
Kyanzittha was the second son of Anawrahta. His mother was an Arakanese princess called Pancha Kalyani. He was born after his father had taken the throne of
Pagan from Sokke-Te. Kyanzittha was of royal birth. He inherited features of his father's personality and grew up to be a great warrior at his father's
court. He won a great deal of popularity in the wars against the Maw Shans. It was quite possible that Anawrahta might have made him his successor
because Sawlu lacked the abilities of an able ruler. But unfortunately for him he invited the anger of his father because he misbehaved with Khin U the
princess from Pegu. Anawrahta threw his spear at Kyanzittha when the latter was brought to him tied with ropes. The spear helped to cut the knots and
Kyanzittha ran away from the court. Thus began Kyanzittha's exile at a Sagaing village called Kyaungbyu. Here he married Thambula, a monk's daughter, and had
Closer to 1084 he received an invitation from his brother Sawlu who was then the ruler of Pagan. Kyanzittha was asked to help Sawlu against the Talaing
forces led by Yamankan. He willingly accepted to fight Yamankan and placed his plans before Sawlu. But the latter neglected his advice and soon found himself
a prisoner in the hands of Yamankan. Kyanzittha now had an opportunity to take the throne, but he made no such attempt. On the contrary he tried to rescue
his brother Sawlu from Yamankan's camp. This action of Kyanzittha reveals his noble character. He was loyal and faithful to his foster-brother, but
unfortunately found that Sawlu had always been suspicious of his actions. When he entered Yamankan's camp he found Sawlu shouting out for aid against him.
Kyanzittha was then forced to leave Sawlu with Yamankan. He finally took shelter at Pakokku and here to his great surprise found himself hailed as the ruler
of Pagan because Sawlu in the meantime had been put to death by Yamankan. Thus began the reign of Kyanzittha in 1084.
2. His Wars
Soon after his accession he had to fight Yamankan who now stood at the gates of Pagan, asking the people to surrender. Kyanzittha fortunately received help
from an Ari monk called Shin Popa. The latter agreed to accompany the Burmese forces with his magical powers. He marched ahead showing magical signs to
Yamankan's forces. This resulted in the defeat of the Talaing forces. Yamankan was killed while retreating down the Irrawaddy. Thus ended the Talaing
rebellion. The Talaings accepted Kyanzittha as their overlord.
Immediately after his victory over the Taiaings, Kyanzittha held his coronation ceremony at Pagan. Shin Arahan the Primate conducted the royal ceremony with
the five emblems of crown, sword, sandals, yaktail and the white umbrella. He was then proclaimed as the ruler of the Burmese and the Talaings. The
Coronation system was introduced for the first time. It gave an indirect importance to Buddhist religion because it was conducted by the Head Priest or the
Primate. It appeared that the latter could now influence the ruler to a considerable extent. Kyanzittha then built a new palace and set up a series of
inscriptions mostly in Talaing.
After his coronation Kyanzittha followed a peaceful policy. He tried to consolidate the Kingdom established by his father. There were very few rebellions
during his reign. It is possible that the Shans, the Arakanese and Talaings submitted to him quietly as they remembered his early war career, and were
therefore afraid of raising any opposition against him. Inspite of his war - abilities Kyanzittha made no attempt to expand his kingdom. It is probable that
he understood the need of peaceful years in order to centralise his administration and thus to maintain the integrity of the kingdom for centuries to come.
There was only one minor war fought against the chief of South Arakan who often raided the frontiers of the Pagan kingdom. Within a short time the chief of
S. Arakan was defeated, and all further opposition was suppressed. The rest of his reign was occupied in giving suitable system of government.
3. His Administrations
He adopted the policy introduced by his father. He maintained the division of his kingdom into a number of districts and sent capable officers to see to the
necessary law order, and also to collect the revenue from their respective districts. Like Anawrahta he also tried to improve the irrigational canals and as
such help the production of crops. There was peace throughout his kingdom and soon he became a popular and well loved ruler. His sincerity towards his
foster-brother brought the love and loyalty of his subjects. He is remembered as one of the great rulers of the Pagan Dynasty.
4. His Religion
Kyanzittha loved his religion very much. Like his father he was eager to do much towards the spread of this faith. He had high aspirations of building
temples in order to show his deep admiration for this religion. During his reign many more monks came to seek shelter at his capital. The persecution of
followers of the Buddhist faith had increased in India as the religion was almost uprooted from there. Amongst these monks there were eight monks from
Orissa. They came to the Pagan palace and related the story of Annanda Temple which stood on the Udagaire Hills of Orissa. Kyanzittha was soon inspired with
an ambition of building a similar temple at Pagan. The temple was completed in 1090. It was named ANANDA TEMPLE. This temple continued for centuries to be
one of the wonders of Pagan. It possessed a beautiful piece of art in the prayer hall. A huge image of Lord Buddha was fixed in this hall and smaller images
of Shin Arahan and Kyanzittha were placed at the Lord's feet.
Kyanzittha also constructed some forty smaller temples such as Payeinma at his birth-place and the Shwedwinnaung at Sagaing, and he also completed the
Shwezigone Temple which had been left unfinished by his father. He dedicated six villages to the monasteries, and the most important villages were e.g.,
Payeinma, Kyaukyit, Kyahkat and Waya, and also donated riches and money to the monasteries. He held many religious ceremonies at his palace and invited his
subjects to participate in these.
During his reign he had to face a very difficult problem. He gave his daughter Shwe-ein-the in marriage to Sawyun, the son of his foster-brother Sawlu. As
Kyanzittha had no son he declared his grandson. Alaungsithu as his heir apparent. Historians mention that Kyanzittha had declared his grandson as the real
ruler. He had said to his people : "Behold your King ! I rule on his behalf." It was sometime after this declaration was made that Thambula arrived at Pagan
with her son. Kyanzittha made her his queen and since he had made his grandson his successor, he appointed his son as the titular lord of N. Arakan. He did
not given up his promise given to his grandson, and Alaungsithu succeeded him after his death in 1112.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF KYANZITTHA'S REIGN
|1.||The Pagan Kingdom was consolidated by his peaceful policy.|
|2.||. There was religious enthusiasm throughout his Kingdom.|
ALAUNGSITHU (1112 TO 1167)
|2.||His Religion & significance of his reign.|
1. His Ascendancy
Alaungsithu was the grandson of Kyanzittha. He was the son of Shwe-in-the and Sawvun. While a child he was declared as the king by his grand father.
Alaungsithu ascended the throne in 1112. He had to face a small rebellion at his capital, but this was successfully crushed. He had two sons, the elder was
called Minshinzaw, and the younger son was named Narethu.
2. His Wars
From the very beginning of his reign Alaungsithu wras very fond of travelling to foreign countries. It is said that he visited Malaya the Isles of Arakan
and Bengal in India. His absence from the capital resulted in a series of rebellions. He was often involved in the suppression of these rebellions. Apart
from these Alaungsithu made no offensive wars. Like his father he was also a peace-loving ruler. He had to suppress three rebellions, viz*
|a.||South Arakan 1114.|
|c.||. North Arakan 1118.|
(a) South Arakan
1114 Thetminkadon the chief of South Arakan had been defeated by Kyanzittha. He now began to raid the frontiers of the Pagan kingdom in order to avenge his
last defeat in the reign of Kyanzittha. In 1114 Alaungsithu defeated him and had him executed. It is said that the Mahagiri spirit visited Alaungsithu in his
dream and blamed him for the execution of Thetminkadon. Thereupon Alaungsithu begged pardon of the head and placed it in a jewelled box on top of Tuywin
hill, where people were allowed to hold annual feast in honour of the dead chief.
1115 Alaungsithu had also to suppress rebellion in the Tenasserim. He was successful in this battle also. The Talaings placed no further opposition during
(c) N. Arakan (1118)
The chief of N. Arakan had been driven out by a usurper. The former took shelter in the forests and then sent his son Letyaminnon to Alaungsithu's court to
request him for help against the usurper. Letyaminnon came to the Pagan court dressed in peculiar fashion in order to attract the King's attention.
Alaungsithu was having a hair-washing ceremony. He was much displeased with Letyaminnon's appearance. He summoned him, and Letyaminnon stood before the king
and related his sad story. Alaungsithu accepted to help him. The usurper was defeated and the throne was restored to Letyaminnon and his father.
Letyaminnon accepted the Pagan ruler as his overlord and in gratitude rendered his thanks by repairing the shrine at Buddhagaya.
From 1118 till 1167 Alaungsithu made no other war. He gave peaceful years to his people and thus left his kingdom more united and better governed.
3. His Administration
Alaungsithu proved to be a wise ruler. He is remembered as one of the best statesmen of the Pagan Dynasty. His peaceful policy enabled him to give much of
his time to the administration of his kingdom. He continued the system of keeping his kingdom divided into a number of districts and sent capable officers to
see to the necessary administration. Like his predecessors he took great interest in the construction of canals for the irrigation of crops. He also repaired
the Meiktila Lake. There was much food crop and his subjects were happy and loved him for the improvements he had made. He also introduced certain weights
and measures which were then considered as standard weights throughout his kingdom. These were the tical and the basket measures. Alaungsithu also compiled a
series of laws. These were the first laws introduced and were later collected into a book called Alaungsithu Pyatton.
4. His Religion
Like his forefathers Alaungsithu was also a great worshipper of the Buddhist religion. There is a fable attached to the temples which were erected by him. It
is said that during one of his travels he reached the Zambuthabyebin, the fabulous Rose Apple Gardens, and here he met Thayamin the Lord of Spirits and from
him he received the Holy Wood. Alaungsithu made five images out of this wood and placed them in five Pagodas, four of which were built at Pakkangyu in
Pakokku district and the fifth one in Shwebo district. The sites for these temples were located by the wandering of the white elephant or by the flight of
birds. He also rebuilt Kyaungdawya in Minbu district. In 1144 he built one of the best pagodas at Pagan and called it the Thatpyinnyu Temple. Close to this
temple he also built the Shwegu Temple. On the walls of these temples this great monarch of the Pagan Dynasty wrote out inscriptions in Pali. He asked
Letyaminnon to repair the Buddhagaya temple in Bengal Later he sent his monks to that temple to write out inscriptions in Pali indicating the power of the
Pagan Rulers. Earlier in 1115 he sent an embassy to the chief of Nanchao offering him gold, silver, flowers and elephant tusks. He hoped to receive the
Lord's tooth in return for this token of friendship. Like Anawrahta he was also eager to collect many religious relics for his capital. But the Chief of
Nanchao refused to part with the tooth. Records indicate that Alaungsithu also visited Nanchao for the Lord's Tooth. Immediately after his return from
Nanchao Shin Arahan the Primate died. Alaungsithu wanted to continue the system of having a head priest at his capital. He therefore requested Panthagu to
take the place.
Towards the end of his reign Alaungsithu married a very young princess. She was the daughter of the Chief of Pateikkaya. One day Minshinzaw entered his
father's chamber to pay him his homage. He was much displeased with the behaviour of his step-mother. In anger he spoke out wrathful words to the queen. This
annoyed the king and he immediately had Minshinzaw arrested and ordered him to be executed. But the advisers of Alaungsithu appealed for the life of the
young prince. Their appeal was granted and Minshinzaw was then exiled to live at Htuntonputet, a village east of Mandalay. Here he ruled in proper state. He
also built temples one of which was the Shwekyimin Pagoda. He constructed the Aungbinle and the Tamokso Lakes together with large irrigational canals.
After the exile of Minshinzaw, Narethu became the Crown Prince of Pagan. He was happy over the exile of his brother, and he now awaited his father's death in
order to get the throne. In 1167 Alaungsithu fell sick. Narethu had him removed to the temple at the palace, and soon seized the throne. He was convinced
that his father was nearing his death. But to his great surprise the calm and serene atmosphere of the temple enabled the king to recover. Narethu was now
afraid to face his father's anger. He therefore decided to murder him. He entered the temple and strangled his father to death. Thus ended the reign of
Alaungsithu in 1167. Narethu then ascended the throne.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ALAUNGSITHU'S REIGN
|1.||The Kingdom was further consolidated.|
|2.||Religious enthusiasm continued.|
|2.||Alaungsithu Pyatton and weights & measures.|
NARETHU (1167 TO 1170)
Narethu was the son of Alaungsithu. He became the Crown Prince after the exile of his elder brother Minshinzaw. In 1167 he ascended the throne after having
murdered his father while the latter lay on his sick-bed. Perhaps Narethu believed that, killing a dying and aged man was no sin.
The news of this evil action rapidly spread throughout his kingdom. It reached Minshinzaw as well. He was determined to avenge his father's death and
therefore marched towards Pagan in order to punish Narethu for his wicked action. While Minshinzaw was on his way to Pagan, Narethu had to face many
difficulties at his palace. Panthagu, the Primate, insisted on leaving Pagan because he did not wish to live with a murderer. But Narethu agree to alone for
his sins and begged Panthagu to make peace between him and his brother. He also promised to give the crown to Minshinzaw. The Primate took him to be sincere
in his words, and he thereupon went to Minshinzaw and requested him to forgive Narethu. Minshinzaw agreed and he was brought to the capital, and here he was
given the throne. Narethu offered the crown in a very ceremonious manner. People began to feel that Narethu was repenting his action. But the same night
Minshinzaw was poisoned to death. The next day Narethu took the throne. The Primate immediately sailed away to Ceylon. The subjects at the capital and at the
palace began to keep away from the king. Narethu tried to bring his subjects under obedience by throwing fear in to them. He carried out a series of
executions and even had his step-mother the Princess of Pateikkaya put to death. This made the people shun him more. At last Narethu realised his sins and he
began to find solace in the temples. He built another great temple similar to the Ananda Temple, and named it the Dammayon Temple. It is believed that the
king spent many hours in this temple asking forgiveness from the Lord. In 1170 he was murdered by men sent by the chief of Pateikkaya.
With Narethu began the gradual decay of the Pagan Kingdom. During his reign the religious ceremonies held at the palace almost faded away. He left two sons
called Naratheinkha and Narapatisithu. The former was the elder and he therefore ascended the throne in 1170.
NARATHEINKHA (1170 TO 1173)
He was the elder son of Narethu.
He succeeded his tather in 1170. He had short reign of only three years. While his brother Narapathisithu was away suppressing one of the rebellions
Naratheinkha married his brother's wife called Veluvati and made her his queen. When Narapatisithu heard of his marriage he sent 80 of his men to kill the
king. Naratheinkha was put to death and Narapatisithu then took the throne.